Negro Nations and Cultures, bible of African history.

cheikh Anta Diop

The book “Negro Nation and Cultures” is the fruit of phenomenal research, carried out by Cheikh Anta Diop, to restore the history of black Africa, which has long been obscured.

At that time, scientific racism, carried by eminent figures, was rooted in Western society, and had attributed to white the Cartesian being par excellence, the father of all civilizations, and defined black as a primitive, emotional being, incapable of the slightest logic.

The ancient Egyptians were black

It is in this torrent of racist certainties that Cheikh Anta Diop, a young man 27 years of age, is going to take the dominant ideology to the task, by asserting that the ancient Egyptians, precursors of civilization and science, were black. He not only asserts it, but he also proves it.

This thesis had the effect of an earthquake, and since it was bothersome, he had to be silenced.

You can’t hide the sun with a finger, as the African proverb says. Even if the Sorbonne University rejected his thesis in 1951, Présence africaine published the book in 1954.

Notwithstanding the evidence that is not lacking in his book, prejudiced scientists will try by all means to bring his work into disrepute.

Deemed too revolutionary, some African intellectuals found it difficult to adhere to the ideas conveyed in the book. Aimé Césaire was one of the few to support it. In ” Discourse Against Colonialism “, he will describe Cheikh Anta Diop’s book as ” the most audacious book a Negro has ever written “.

It was only until the 1974 Unesco colloquium that most of his theses were finally recognized” in its way of writing, its culture and its way of thinking, Egypt was African”, these were the conclusions of this summit.

Evidence of the negritude of ancient Egypt

statue of Montouhotep II Egyptian National Museum, Cairo, Egypt. Photographic Rights held by The The Bridgeman Art Library

The fight was a long one, and yet long before it, the fatherhood of Egyptian civilization had been attributed to the black race.

 In the testimonies of Greek scholars such as Herodotus, Aristotle, who were eyewitnesses, the black skin and frizzy hair of the Egyptians were mentioned.

Aristotle called them “agan malane” to describe their skin, which meant excessively black.

In the 18th century, the Count of Volney, a French historian, faced with overwhelming evidence, drew the same conclusions:

 “The Copts are therefore properly the representatives of the Egyptians, and there is a singular fact that makes this acceptation even more probable. Looking at the faces of many individuals of this race, I found a peculiar character that caught my attention: all of them have a yellowish and smoky skin tone, which is neither Greek nor Arabic; all of them have puffy faces, swollen eyes, crushed noses, big lips; in a word, a real Mulatto figure.  

I was tempted to attribute it to the climate when, having visited the Sphinx, its appearance gave me the key to the riddle. On seeing that head, typically Negro in all its features, I remembered the remarkable passage where Herodotus says, “As for me, I judge the Colchians to be a colony of the Egyptians because, like them, they are black with woolly hair” In other words, the ancient Egyptians were true Negroes of the same type as all native-born Africans.”

One of the other irrefutable proofs of the Negro character of the ancient Egyptians was the color of their gods. Osiris and Thoth, to name but a few were black.

The dark representations of the pharaohs and the hairstyles they wore also support the negritude of ancient Egypt. (See MENTOUHOTEP II and NEFERTARI).

The analogy goes beyond the physical and capillary features.

Ancient Egyptian values such as totemism are still present in Black Africa,

A comparative linguistic study highlights similarity between Egyptian and African languages such as Valaf and Serere (non-exhaustive list).

  In light of these arguments, the conclusion is final: The invention of writing, of science, we owe it to blacks. The Greek culture which inspired the Roman culture draws its sources from Negro Africa. “Pythagoras spent 22 years in Egypt, from 558 to 536 BC. Plato stayed there from 399 to 387 B.C… It was therefore there, at the feet of the Egyptian priests, that they drew the knowledge that made their glory. Pharaonic Egypt which was their teacher for so long is part of the heritage of the Black World. It is itself a daughter of Ethiopia. And “in its way of writing, its culture and its way of thinking, Egypt was African”.

Giving the black man his rightful place in the history of mankind 

The fact that this part of the history of mankind was brushed aside was linked to the need to justify colonization. The barbarian negro was then invented and culture was brought to him.

This propaganda found it difficult to accept that African society was structured and advanced before the arrival of the settlers. That the emancipation of women was not a problem. As African society is matriarchal, women held positions of responsibility long before this was the case in Europe.

The goal that Cheikh Anta Diop had in restoring this truth, was to give back to the forgotten continent its letters of nobility. It was not a question of awakening underlying hints of a superiority complex that could lead to forms of Nazism. […] the civilization he [the Negro] claims to have created could have been created by any other human race – as far as one can speak of a race – which would have been placed in such a favorable and unique cradle” [Cheikh Anta Diop, Negro Nations, and Culture, op. cit. 4th edition, p. 401].

Far from being a racist as his detractors wanted to describe him, Cheikh Anta Diop was a great humanist, who was recognized as such.

His work aimed to combat scientific racism and to prove that intelligence is in no way linked to skin color. He challenged the conception of the dominant race, which can be considered a significant contribution to the history of mankind.

The Legacy of Cheikh Anta Diop

Years laters, How do we contribute to the propagation of the colossal legacy left by Cheikh Anta Diop?

He advocated for a united Africa, gathered together, after having forged a strong identity, which would serve as a solid foundation. Where are with pan-Africanism? With the adaption of our languages to the realities and sciences as he experienced with the Valaf in the book? With the decolonization of mentalities?

It must be said that these subjects remain topical.

It is our duty to contribute to the emergence of our continent, which will first and foremost be cultural.

In the field of education, we must implement textbooks adapted to our realities.

Let us adapt our languages to modern realities. It is not a question of banishing the colonial languages acquired, but of revaluing our own and adapting them to modern science.

It is with feet firmly anchored in its roots, free from alienation, detached from the yoke of the colonial, and from the alienation of the colonized, that Africa will know its true value, and that it will be able to take its place on the world chessboard.

This re-foundation, which should not be done in a belligerent manner, will generate Africans proud of their origins, who will take their destiny into their own hands.

Help! African youth are drowning in the Mediterranean!

 Every year, thousands of migrants from Africa are swallowed up by the Mediterranean Sea, trying to reach the European continent.

This unfortunate phenomenon is reminiscent of the fact that Africans were already being kidnapped from their land in the 15th century to serve as free labour in the West. In the recent case, this migration is not a priori forced.

But are these young people leaving the cradle of humanity voluntarily?

Let us read the story of RM (name modified by the editorial staff) a young Ivorian who arrived in Europe on a boat from the Libyan coast.

“The horror described is true… but leaving was the only way out”

 “From the outset, I can tell you that everything you see on TV is true” was the first sentence to come out of his mouth.

 What do you mean by “everything”?

“The dead, the pregnant women, the children, the horror described is true. “he pursued with a serious look.

 RM was born in Côte d’Ivoire, into a low-income family.

After studies, which led him to his senior year of high school, he wanted to take an administrative exam to join the civil service to have a guaranteed salary and be able to help his family. 

To say that bribing,  is an integral part of ivory coast entrance exams, would be to reveal an open secret.

His father refused to comply with this requirement, so RM went from one failure to another.

It was in this hopeless scenario that Europe came into play.

Some friends of his had tried the adventure and it was clear that their situation was better than his.

He then decided to try the Europe route, for lack of anything better.

Unfortunately, his path crossed that of a scammer who abandoned him to his fate in Morocco.

As he could not return to his country, he decided to go to Algeria.

There, he heard about the sea route. Reluctant at first, he finally gave in.

From his account, it is clear that the network of smugglers is very structured

If the candidates for exile have no assurance that they will arrive safely, the smugglers are assured that they will receive their money regardless of the outcome.

The cost of the journey: 550 euros and RM was not the only one.

A true warrior’s journey

They reached Ghadames in Libya by night on foot, and thus made their way into hiding. They will almost no longer see daylight and will be transported in car trunks.

First stopover, Tripoli, where the financial transaction between Algerians and Libyans takes place.

If, however, the Algerian smuggler avoided his task, the Libyan trap would close on the migrant who was reduced to slavery.

From Tripoli, they left for Sabratha, where they were housed in a dump with pregnant women and children.

 “The toilets were so dilapidated and dirty, that no one dared to use them. As for the food, we had dry bread and water, but I wasn’t hungry. I was praying to leave Libya alive. We were given instructions We should stay inside, because outside we were in danger of being kidnapped.

On D-Day, we were taken to the coast.

There were about a hundred of us.

The smugglers asked if any of us were able to steer the boat.

A volunteer from Gambia came forward. Being able to drive a boat was an advantage because not only did it guarantee a place, but the migrant did not have to pay the transport costs.

At the sight of the sea, a feeling of fear invades me. I didn’t know how to swim. In the event of a fall into the water, my fate was sealed. Faced with this eventuality, I almost gave up on my project, but turning back was no longer a possibility.

When I saw that pregnant women were the first to board the boat without fear, I thought to myself that I couldn’t get cold feet. I had to get on board and come what may.

On the boat, there was a heavy silence. Even the children were calm. The situation was serious and we all understood it.

The only problem we faced during our trip was when the engine stopped. Panic reactions almost caused the boat to capsize.

The majority did not sleep a wink we waited for the deliverance that which was slow to come, the seconds seemed like eternities,

A Spanish boat that spotted us came to our rescue.

 Finally, on this boat, which was a symbol of our arrival at the port, tensions eased.

We had made it! We were alive!

I had a thought for my family. I wanted to have them on the phone to reassure them.

“if you had to do it again?…”

 

“I can’t tell you, I never imagined in my life to reach Europe by boat, but caught in a spiral, I took this path against my will.

If I had a job, I would never have left my country.

Europe is far from being Eldorado, but I will continue to work hard. My dream is to go back home and make things happen.

To all those who are thinking of coming to Europe, I will be the last to discourage them, but I advise them to avoid the sea route if possible because it is really dangerous.”

Concretely, what are we doing?

To believe that individuals are willing to face the sea monster at the risk of their lives, without the need to do so, is to be cynical without limits.

Even if the chains are not visible, the constraints are no less present, whether economic or political.

The awareness campaigns, the solutions we propose, from our ivory tower to ease our consciences, do not seem to have a significant impact on this devastating scourge.

The figures of the IOM (International Organization for Migration) puts us in front of our inability to retain our youth.

The evils which have plagued our countries since the independence of the facade are not only not fought but maintained by successive regimes. Corruption, mismanagement, to name but a few, and they are part of what drives our youth to flee.

What are the concrete solutions proposed by our governments?

What is Europe doing besides building itself into a fortress?

What can we say to our youth if staying or leaving is for death?

JUST LIKE LILIAN THURAM, WE MUST FIGHT RACISM AT ITS ROOTS

Lukaku,Football player victim of racism during a match
© Jonathan Moscrop – BELGAIMAGE

During a Series, A match in Cagliari, Italy, a horde of supporters shouts monkey cries at Belgian footballer Lukaku.

“What was this footballer’s crime?” you might ask. It’s his high melanin level, his skin color.

No, this scene is not from a history book or a fiction film.

It is taking place in 2019.

Before Lukaku, players like Samuel Etoo, the Cameroonian international, received similar treatment.

Despite almost unanimous condemnations, black players in stadiums are still victims of racist jokes, without any effective action against the perpetrators of these acts.

In Moses Keane’s case, these racist shouts were even downplayed by the Italian football federation, which is reported as being a provocation, rather than racism.

 Some Milan ultras have tried to pull a fast one on us, as far as Lukaku is concerned. According to them, these shouts would only serve to destabilize the opponent, but under no circumstances could they be racist.

Astonishing, isn’t it?

“The racist has a superiority complex” Lilian Thuram

Lilian Thuram © P. Lahalle L’Équipe

Interviewed by an Italian newspaper, Lilian Thuram, a former footballer, to explain the behavior of these racist supporters, talks about their superiority complex linked to history. This statement, taken out of context and highlighted, was enough to provoke a general outcry.

Despite his explanations of the text on different sets, the storm is not about to calm down.

The avalanche of reactions was not long in coming. Lilian Thuram was guilty of anti-white racism.

But, at the risk of disappointing people with selective indignation, Lilian Thuram knows what he is talking about when he talks about this superiority imbued with white culture.

He has been studying the subject for some time and has even set up an association https://www.thuram.org/ ,to educate and combat stereotypes with the sole aim of teaching.

Far from being racist, he only reported the facts as they are.

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Racism, a variation of the racial hierarchy

Racism did not emerge overnight; it does have a long history.

There are plenty of racist “masterpieces” in literary or scientific archives, which have helped to relegate the black to the bottom of the scale.

One only has to read Arthur Gobineau’s “racial inequality” to realize the extent of the evil. And he is not the only one.

Highly racist studies by scientists and renowned “enlightened minds” have concluded that black is the missing link.

These racists, subjective demonstrations are the basis for racial hierarchization.

Under the pretext of science, black was declared subordinate, which allowed white to gain superiority.

It was in the name of this superiority that slavery was created.

This superiority was also the argument for colonization.

It was in the name of this superiority that slavery was created.

Today, it still enables intellectuals to consider that colonization was positive for the African continent.

It has long governed relations between blacks and whites and has had time to make its way through different minds. Even the highly educated black intellectuals did not fail to perpetuate these false ideas without their knowledge. The famous phrase of the talented Senghor “reason is Greek, emotion is black” is the illustration.

It reemerged during the debates by many Africans against Africans, without them having the slightest idea what they are doing so, the apology of scientific racism.

All logical reasoning has long been denied to the black, in an attempt to justify his servitude. The saddest thing is he has been convinced of the merits of this approach.

These sequelae left by this scientific racism are very present nowadays.

The image of this poor Africa, which is reaching out to its hand, is not meant to make things better.

The monkey cries at black players are just an extension of this superiority complex.

 “Stop dwelling on the past! Racism is over!”

Some people wonder if we are not doing too much about it. “it’s just animal cries,” they say.

We could have thought the same thing if portraying the black in a simian way, was not one of the foundations of scientific racism.

We are all equal, of course, but it is not enough to order the end of a thing to make it disappear.

 Injustices built on theories do not magically vanish into thin air.

These theories were planted like seeds, and had time to sprout.

All you have to do is get out of your bubble to know that the black is still not treated as an equal. He must show “white paws” to be accepted, do twice as much as white, and needless to say that he is expected to set an outstanding example.

In everyday life, being black is not easy. And even when you excel in your art as Lukaku does, you are not immune to being “put back” in your place.

The cries of monkeys at the sight of blacks not only revive the wounds of the recent past, but also make us understand that progress on human equality is only a facade.

Racism is a scourge that undermines our society, and to eradicate it, we must deal with it at its roots.

Lilian Thuram may have punctured the abscess and the unpleasant repulsive smell is undoubtedly inconvenient, but it is a necessary step.

Looking away, closing the nose, being a frightened virgin will not help us move things forward nor will it keep us quiet.

Many people nowadays allow themselves to make racist shortcuts out of ignorance.

Naming things does not mean making racism anti-white.

This anti-white racism, if it existed, is far from the racism of which blacks are victims.

Dear Caucasians, It is undoubtedly very unpleasant to be indexed at parties by blacks, or to receive remarks about your mixed couple, but know that blacks envy you this treatment.

They, because of the colour of their skin, almost get lynched, are refused jobs, apartments, or have to justify themselves at all times.

Black scientists have never developed theories comparing the white race to an animal to justify any exploitation. So let’s avoid comparing the incomparable.

Thuram only told the absolute truth and if it disturbs, let us join his fight and educate future generations for true equality.

By the way, we would like to reassure you that we do not take pleasure in discussing racism, we are tired of having to talk about it. It would have been more relaxing to write an article on the reproduction of seahorses, but unfortunately, the glaring inequalities in the society in which we live leave us no choice.

Full support to Lilian Thuram!

Racism,a mental disorder

Dr Mamadou Barry

It’s official! Racism is a mental disorder.
If you suffer from it ,I strongly urge you to have yourself admit to a psychiatric hospital.A treatment with electroshocks could restore your brain. For the worst cases a lobotomy could be considered.
Mamadou Barry a brilliant young man ,an academic doctor was murdered in front of his wife and 2 years old daughter.His only crime was to be born with the wrong color .
His agressor officially recognized as “mentally unbalanced “used racism slurs before delivering mortal blows against him.We are in 2019, and being born black can be a cause of death,and I am afraid that will still be the case in years to come.
What can we tell his wife?What will we tell his daughter when she will be old enough to understand?
A young man full of projects,a young man with a promising future ahead…
The circumstances of his death are aberrant, repugnant…
I wonder how many of those racists oups…”mentally unbalanced ” are walking in the streets.
Rest in peace Dr Mamadou Barry.My sincere condolences to your family and to those who carry you in their hearts.
Mine is bleeding when I see your pictures.